Blue Team:

Blue Team:

canstock2300840.png

Blue Team:



Subject to include in the work:

  1. Hobbies;
  2. Sports;
  3. Equipment;
  4. Holidays;
  5. Present Simple;
  6. Present Continuous;
  7. Nouns.

Members of Blue Team:

Menino_escrevendo.JPG

  • Ana Gualdino nº 1
  • Filipe Roque nº 6
  • Helena Anselmo nº 8
  • Jéssica Ribeiro nº 9
  • Vasco Frija nº 20
aaaaaaaaaa8ºC







Hello, everyone!
We are the Blue Team, which is formed by the following team members:

Introducing ourselves:

Hi, my name is Ana Gualdino!

I live in Bairro and I'm 13 years old.

menina_fofa.jpg


My favourite hobby:

My favourite hobbies are dancing, camping, watching films, shopping and painting.
229799.gifninos-pintando.jpg




Hy , my name is Vasco Frija and I am 12 years old.

I live in Bairro.



Eu_no_C.A.JPG

My favourite hobby:

1st-Playing tennis , riding a bike.


Roger_Federer.jpg

2nd-Playing PS3 , playing computer games, and watching TV.




Hi, my name is Jéssica Ribeiro!

I am 13 years old and I live in Bairro.



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My favourite hobby:

My favourite hobbies are reading, drawing, shopping, camping, watching films and play games on the laptop.



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Hello, my name is Helena Anselmo.

I am 13 years old and I live in Bogarréus.



My favourite hobby:

My favourite hobbies are camping,watching films,listeenig to music and shopping.


external image o-que-levar-acampamento.jpgmusic_clip_art.51110046.JPG



Hello, my name is Filipe Roque.

I am 13 years old and I live in Atouguia.


33-menino_carlinhos.jpg




My favourite hobby:

My favourite hobbies are playing footbal, watching TV, eating and sleep.
garfield_dormindo.jpgcomendo_maca.jpg




1) HOBBIES:



My favourite hobby

My favourite hobbies are painting and drawing.I don’t remember when I start these hobbies, but I guess it was when I was about 5 years old.
I started to draw and paint at home, but then I went to school and learned to draw better, until today.
I have art lessons at school. This happens two times a week.
It is something I love doing, describe what I feel in design, or even paint something natural and day-to-day. Or even draw scenes from my imagination!!
It's where I can explore colors on paper, without destroying anything around me.
I love to paint and draw everything!

Ana Gualdino


My favourite hobby

My favourite hobbies are playing tennis, watching TV and playing PS3. I don’t remember when I started warching TV, but I guess it was when I was about 1 year old or less.
I started playing tennis in Alenquer about 1 year and 6 months ago.
I have tennis lessons in Alenquer, in Vila Baixa Tennis Club. This happens twice a week.
I started playing PS3 ast Christmas.
I realy like do this; it is awesome.

Vasco Frija

My favourite hobby


My favourite hobbies are reading, drawing and camping.I started these hobbies when I was about 6 (six) years old.

I began to read and drawat home with my sister because she helps me, because she's older and is very patient with me, then I started to read and draw well at school.
I began camping in the scouts. Then I started to go camping with my family and some friends.
I'm in the scouts on Saturdays in the afternoon at the three o'clock and finish at six o'clock or 5 o'clock.
I love these hobbie, because they are very interesting and funny.

Jéssica Ribeiro


My favourite hobby

....

Helena Anselmo

My favourite hobby

My favourite hobbies are playing football and watching TV. I started playing football, when I was 11 years old.
I started to play football at school. I have football lessons at Carregado. This happens four times a week.
It is something I love doing.
I like playing football very much

Filipe Roque



2) SPORTS:


Some sports:

- Ball Games:
  • rugbyrugby.gif
  • basketball oqp.gif
  • golf 9878.gif
  • baseball bbpitch1.gif
  • volleyball volyblf1.gif
  • cricket crickebatswing-motion2-w.gif
  • tennis Tennis_player.gif
  • squash
  • football
  • paddle


- Water Sports:

  • rowing
  • swimming
  • diving
  • canoeing
  • sailing
  • rafting
  • snorkelling
  • water polo

- Extreme Sports:canoagem.gifnatacao.gif

  • jet- skiing
  • mountain biking
  • rappelling
  • scuba-diving
  • skydiving
  • snowboarding
  • windsurfing
  • kitesurfing
  • Bungee jump


3) EQUIPMENT:


  • Ball - bola
  • Bat - pá de críquete, basebol,etc
  • Board - prancha
  • Boots - botas
  • Club - taco de golfe
  • Crash helmet - capacete de protecção (de motociclista)
  • Football - bola de futebol
  • Gloves - luvas
  • Goggles - óculos protectores
  • Hang-glider - asa-delta
  • Helmet - capacete
  • Motorboat - barco a motor
  • Net - rede
  • Oar - remo
  • Parachute - pára-quedas
  • Racket - raqueta (de ténis)
  • Rope - corda
  • Running shoes - sapatilhas
  • Saddle -sela
  • Shorts - calções
  • Ski boots - botas de esqui
  • Skisuit - fato para esquiar
  • Stick - aléu (de hóquei)
  • Surfboard - prancha de surf
  • Swimming costume - fato de banho
  • Tracksuit - fato de treino
  • Trunks - calções de banho
  • Whistle - apito


4) HOLIDAYS:



Holidays Places:


  • On the beach;
  • At the seaside;montanhas.gif
  • In the mountains;
  • In the countryside;
  • In town;
  • At home;
  • Abroad.


Types of holidays:


  • Eco-trip;
  • Summer holiday;Como_ter_as_melhores_ferias_da_sua_vida.gif
  • Package holiday;
  • Winter holiday;
  • Cultural journey;
  • Walking holiday;
  • Christmas holiday;
  • Easter holiday


5) PRESENT SIMPLE:


(used for frequent actions, habits)


Ex:I usually go to the Algarve.
We eat lots of icecreans in summer.

Affirmative:


I eat
You eat
He eats
She eats
It eats
We eat
You eat
They eat

Negative:

I don't eat
You don't eat
He doesn’t eat
She doesn’t eat
It doesn’t eat
We don’t eat
You don’t eat
They don’t eat

Interrogative:

Do I eat?
Do you eat?
Does he eat?
Does she eat?
Does it eat?
Do we eat?
Do you eat?
Do they eat?




Adverbs of frequency:

Ex:I usually go to the beach.

More:

- > usually
- > rarely
- > always
- > normaly
- > sometimes
- > never
- > frequently
- > often
- > ever


Where they are placed:
Affirmative:
I’m always busy.
Verb to be
Negative:
I don´t always go to the beach.
Interrogative:
Doyou always come here? Vens sempre aqui?
Does she usually study? Ela estuda normalmente?
Does he ever cook? Ele alguma vez cozinha?



Time Expressions:
Ex: I go to the beach every year.

More:
  • every day
  • every month
  • every week
  • on Wednesday
  • in the morning
  • in the afternoon
  • in the evening
  • at night
  • in summer
  • in winter
  • in August
  • at the weekend
  • at Christmas
  • at 8 o'clock
  • ....



6) PRESENT CONTINUOUS:


Ex: I’m watching TV now.

Verb “to be” + Gerund


Gerund:


»Die - dying
»Drive - driving
»See - seeing
»Be - being
»Put - putting
»Play - playing
»Ski - skiing
……


Affirmative:

I’m watching
You are watching
He is watching
She is watching
It is watching
We are watching
You are watching
They are watching


Negative:

I’m not watching
You aren’t watching
He isn’t watching
She isn’t watching
It isn’t watching
We aren’t watching
You aren’t watching
They aren’t watching


Interrogative:


Am I watching?
Are you watching?
Is he watching?
Is she watching?
Is it watching?
Are we watching?
Are you watching?
Are they watching?



Expressions of time:


Now
At the moment


Attencion:Present Continuous with the meaning of future.

Ex:I’m cooking tonight.


7) NOUNS:


  • Compound Nouns:


A compound noun is made up of two or more words. Most compound nouns in English are formed by two nouns, or an adjective and a noun.
The two parts may be written in a number of ways:
  • as one word
Example: boyfriend, girlfriend, bedroom (noun+noun)
  • as two words joined with a hyphen
Example: dry-cleaning, (adjective+verb)
  • as two separate words
Example: red head (adjective+nouns)

  • Omission of nouns after the genitive:


Maria is going to her grandparents' next summer. (= grandparents' house or the house of her parents)

Example:Fruit and vegetables were on sale in the greengrocer's.

  • Plural form of nouns:



Regular nouns:
-s [z]
-s [iz]
-ies [iz]
-ves [vz]
Song-Songs
Kiss-Kisses
Baby-Babyes
Wife-Wives
Couple-Couples
Box-Boxes
City-Cities
Knife-Knives
Dream-Dreams
Bus-Buses
Lady-Ladies
Thief-Thieves
Sound-Sounds
Watch-Watches
Ferry- Ferries
Shelf-Shelves
  • Regular nounsform their plural by ending in -s,-es, -ies and -ves.


Irregular nouns:

Man-Men
Child-Children
Person-People
Woman-Women
Mouse-Mice
Fish-Fish
Foot-Feet
Goose-Geese
Sheep-Sheep
Tooth-Teeth
Ox-Oxen
Deer-Deer
  • Irregular nouns form their plural in different ways and some don´t change in the plural.

Example:woman - women; mouse - mice
Example:one mullet - two mullet; one sheep - two sheep


Plural nouns:

Glasses
Shorts
Clothes
Trousers
Jeans
Scissors
  • Some nouns are usually used in the plural - plural nouns. They refer to things which usually consist of two parts.

Example:glasses, trousers, jeans, pyjamas, etc.

  • We can also say a pair of glasses / a pair of trousers.

Example:I want to buy a new pair of jeans.
or
Example:I want to buy some new jeans.

THE END....

Ana Catarina- Satisfaz Plenamente
Helena Anselmo- Satisfaz menos
Jessica Ribeiro- Satisfaz
Filipe Roque- Satisfaz menos
Vasco Frija- Satisfaz




Continuing of the summaries of the subjects learnt:



8) EXPRESSING PREFERENCES:


I prefer playing football to swimming.
I'd rather play football than swim.

Example:I prefer dancing to listening to music.
aaaaaaaaaI'd rather dance than listen to music.

Example:I'd rather sail than play cricket.
aaaaaaaaaI prefer sailing to playing cricket.

9) ADJECTIVES:


  • Position of Adjectives:


- Adjectives are used to describe a noun. They are usually used before nouns.
Example:I try to play like my favourite players.

- Adjectives don't change form.
  • singular:
Example: favourite player
  • plural:
Example: favourite players

- Adjectives can be used after the verb to be.

Example: That footballer is very strong.

-We use adjectives after verbs of the senses: look, smell, taste, sound, etc.

Example: You look beautiful in your new skirt.


  • Adjective + Preposition:


After some adjectives we can use a preposition:


Example: at, on, of, in, about, for.

  • adjectives meaning 'good' or 'bad'

Example: I'm good/brilliant at football.
aaaaaaaaaI'm bad at snooker.
aaaaaaaaaMy classmates have been good to me.
fhffffffffffffffffffffaaaaaaaaaaanice to
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaakind to
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaarude to


  • adjectives expressing feelings

Example: I'm fond of skiing.
aaaaaaaaaI'm keen on extreme sports.
aaaaaaaaaI'm interested in aerobics.
aaaaaaaaaHe was angry with me.
aaaaaaaaaI'm disappointed with your performance.
aaaaaaaaaMy mother is happy with my school marks.
aaaaaaaaaI'm impressed by/with your success.
aaaaaaaaaI'm sorry about what I've done.
aaaaaaaaaI'm tired of studying for the tests.
aaaaaaaaaI'm anxious about the competition.
aaaaaaaaaI was surprised at your bad behaviour.
aaaaaaaaaI'm afraid of flying.


  • other adjectives

Example: He's responsible for our project.
aaaaaaaaaI'm late for the football match.
aaaaaaaaaI'm ready for the game.
aaaaaaaaaShe's famous for her good looks and beautiful voice.
aaaaaaaaaHe is similar to his brother,but very different from his sister.
aaaaaaaaaThe streets are full of rubbish.



10) PAST CONTINUOUS:


Example:
- What were they doing at 11 on Saturday ?
- Obama was watching the news.
- I was studying.
- You were practising the clarinet.
- We were taking a photo.

Affirmative:

I was going
You were going
He was going
She was going
It was going
We were going
You were going
They were going


Negative:

I wasn't going
You weren't going
He wasn't going
She wasn't going
It wasn't going
We weren't going
You weren't going
They weren't going


Interrogative:


Was I going?
Were you going?
Was he going?
Was she going?
Was it going?
Were we going?
Were you going?
Were they going?

11) PAST CONTINUOUS or PAST SIMPLE:


Example:I was having a bath when the phone rong.
aaaaaaaaPast ContinuousaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaPast Simple

aaaaaaaaI was listening to music when someone broke the window.
aaaaaaaaPast ContinuousaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaPast Simple

12) THE FUTURE-WILL:



Affirmative:
form : will +´verb
I will dance
You will play
He will go
She will sing
It will have
We will read
You will eat
They will work


Negative:
form: will not or won't + verb
I won't dance
You won't play
He won't go
She won't sing
It won't have
We won't read
You won't eat
They won't work


Interrogative:


Will I go?
Will you go?
Will he go?
Will she go?
Will it go?
Will we go?
Will you go?
Will they go?

USE:

  • We use will:

- to make predictions about the future.
Example:We probably won't see as much of each other after we finish school.

-to give a promise or our help to someone.
Example:I'll be at school at 9.00.
I'll help you with your homework.

-for decisions taken at the moment of speaking.
Example:I'll have a glass of milk, please.

  • We often use will with I'm sure, I think, I expect, I hope, I wish and probably.

TIME EXPRESSIONS:

- tonight
- tomorrow
- the day after tomorrow
- next week
- next month
- next year
- next term
- in 2 years



13) THE FUTURE-GOING TO:



Affirmative:
form : verb to be + going to + ´verb
I 'm going to dance
You are going to play
He is going to go
She is going to sing
It is going to have
We are going to read
You are going to eat
They are going to work


Negative:
form: verb to be (negative) + going to + verb
I 'm not going to dance
You aren't going to play
He isn't going to go
She isn't going to sing
It isn't going to buy
We aren't going to read
You aren't going to eat
They aren't going to work


Interrogative:


Am I going to dance?
Are you going to visit?
Is he going to buy?
Is she going to sing?
Is it going to read?
Are we going to eat?
Are you going to run?
Are they going to work?


USE:

  • We use going to:

- for an intention (what we've decided to do).
Example: I'm going to your birthday party tomorrow.


- for a prediction based on the present situation.
Example:There are clouds in the sky. It's going to rain.


14) ADVERBS OF MANNER:



Adverbs of manner describe the way something is done. They normally go at the end of the clause. If there is an adjective with a similar meaning, you usually add -ly to the adjective, or -ily if the adjective ends with y .
Example: The dog attacked Jim furiously.

Formation of adverbs:


Adjective + -ly
Djective + -ily
Some averbs are different
Quick – Quickly
Angry – Angrily
Fast – Fast
Long – Long
Quiet – Quietly
Heavy – Heavily
Hard – Hard
Near – Near
Loud – Loudly
Happy – Happily
High – High
Early – Early
Wonderful – Wonderfully
Sleepy – Sleepily
Late – Late
Good – Well
Bad – Badly
Easy – Easily




15) ADJECTIVE DEGREES:



Adjective
Comparative
Superlative
Superiority
Equality
Inferiority
Small
Smaller (than)
As small as
As/so small as
(The) smallest
Big
Bigger (than)
As big as
So/as big as
(The) biggest
Fat
Fatter (than)
As fat as
So/as fat as
(The) fattest
Rich
Richer (than)
As rich as
So/as rich as
(The) richest
Happy
Happier (than)
As happy as
So/as happy as
(The) happiest
Wonderful
More wonderful (than)
As wonderful as
So/as wonderful as
(The) most wonderful
Interesting
More interesting (than)
As interesting as
So/as interesting as
(The) most interesting
Exciting
More exciting (than)
As exciting as
So/as exciting as
(The) most exciting

NOTE: Irregular comparisons:
Good – better - (The) best
Bad – worse – (The) worst
Much – more – (The) most
Many – more – (The) most



ADJECTIVE DEGREES:


Adverb
Comparative
Superlative
Slowly
More slowly
(The) most slowly
Easily
More easily
(The) most easily
Hard
Harder
(The) hardest
Fast
Faster
(The) fastest
Badly
Worse
(The) worst
Well
Better
(The) best

16) FOOD AND HEALTH:

fastfood.gif

Negative aspects of Fast Food:

- The food is high in calories.
- The food contains saturated fats.
- It contains too much salt or sugar.
- It increases obesity.
- It increases cardiovascular disease risks.

Positive aspects of Fast Food:

- The food is tasty.
- The meals are not expensive.
- The atmosphere is agreeable. fast-food-thumb7921427.jpg
- Fast food restaurants provide a popular place for teens to socialize.
- Restaurants are usually cleans.
- Restaurants are available everywhere .


17) FOOD (vocabulary):



Fruit - Fruta

  • Apple – Maçã
  • Apricot – Damasco/ alperce
  • Avocado – Abacate
  • Banana – Banana
  • Blackberry – Amora
  • Cherry – Cereja
  • Coconut – Côco
  • Date – Tâmara
  • Fig – Figo
  • Grape – Uva
  • Kiwi fruit – Kiwi
  • Lemon – Limão
  • Lime – Lima
  • Mango – Manga
  • Melon – melão
  • Papaya – Papaia
  • Peach – Pêssego
  • Pear – Pêra
  • Pineapple – Ananás
  • Plum – Ameixa
  • Strawberry – Morango
  • Watermelon – Melancia

Vegetables - Legumes

  • Asparagus – Espargo
  • Aubergine – Beringela
  • Beetroot – Beterraba
  • Beans – Feijões
  • Black Bean – Feijão-Preto
  • Broad Beans – Favas
  • Broccoli – Bróculos
  • Brussels Sprouts – Couve de Bruxelas
  • Cabbage – Couve
  • Carrot – Cenoura
  • Cauliflower – Couve Flor
  • Cucumber – Pepino
  • Garlic – Alho
  • Green Pepper – Pimento
  • Lettuce – Alface
  • Parsley – Salsa
  • Peas – Ervilhas
  • Pumpkin – Abóbora
  • Soy-Bean – Semente de soja
  • Spinach – Espinafre
  • Tomato – Tomate
  • Turnip – Nabo
  • Watercress – Agrião

Meat - Carne

  • Beef – Carne de vaca
  • Chicken – Frango
  • Duck – Pato
  • Ham – Fiambre , presunto
  • Lamb – Cordeiro
  • Pork – Porco
  • Rabbit – Coelho
  • Sausage – Salsicha
  • Turkey – Perú
  • Veal – Vitela
  • Venison – Carne de Veado

Fish and molluscs - Peixes e moluscos

  • Bream – Dourada
  • Carp – Carpa
  • Codfish – Bacalhau
  • Eel – Enguia
  • Herring – Arenque
  • Octopus – Polvo
  • Scabbard-Fish – Peixe-Espada
  • Sea bass – Robalo
  • Skate – Raia
  • Salmon – Salmão
  • Sardine – Sardinha
  • Sole – Linguado
  • Squid – Lula
  • Stone bass – Cherne
  • Tuna/Tunny – Atum
  • Whiting/Hake – Pescada

Shellfish/crustaceans - Marisco e Crustáceos

  • Crab – Caranguejo
  • Lobster – Lagosta
  • Prawn – Camarão tigre
  • Shrimp – Camarão

Drinks - Bebidas

  • Beer – Cerveja
  • Champagne – Champanhe
  • Coffee – Café
  • Coke – Coca – Cola
  • Juice – Sumo
  • Lemonade – Limonada
  • Liquor – Licor
  • Milk – Leite
  • Mineral water – Água mineral
  • Port – Vinho do Porto
  • Soft Drinks – Refrigerantes
  • Spirits – Bebidas Alcoólicas
  • Tea – Chá
  • Wine – Vinho
  • Whisky – Uísque

Cooking food (verbs) - Verbos utilizados para cozinhar alimentos

  • Bake – assar/cozer no forno
  • Boil – Cozer
  • Braise – Refogar
  • Cook – Cozinhar
  • Fry – Fritar
  • Grill – Grelhar
  • Heat – Aquecer
  • Poach – Escalfar
  • Roast – Assar
  • Steam – Cozinhar a vapor
  • Stew – Estufar


18) COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS:



Countable nouns
Uncountable nouns
1. Onion
PALITOS-DE-CEBOLA.gif
2. Wine
vinho.jpg
3. Banana
banana.jpg

4. Coffeecafe.jpg
5. Hamburger070476497ac33dad37c2392d7d12d9ae.png
6. Meat
external image 1194986277899950389steak-v0.1.svg.thumb.png
external image 1194986277899950389steak-v0.1.svg.thumb.png
7. Sausage
external image sausage.jpg
external image sausage.jpg
8. Teacha_verde.gif
9. Eggovo.jpg
10. Money dinheiro-saco.gif
11. Lemonlimao.jpg
12. Foodistockphoto_13853453-food.jpg
13. Peach
external image 1194986188206140227peach_simple.svg.thumb.png
external image 1194986188206140227peach_simple.svg.thumb.png
14. Water agua.png
15. Steak
external image 1194986277899950389steak-v0.1.svg.thumb.png
external image 1194986277899950389steak-v0.1.svg.thumb.png
16. Traffic
transito.Intransigente.jpg
17. Shoe
s1_1.jpg
18. Cheese
queijo.gif
19. Cabbagecabbage1.gif
20. Rice12456948171194366574johnny_automatic_bowl_of_rice.svg.hi.png
21. Biscuit bolacha.gif
22. Butter foto-de-manteiga.jpg
23. Plum
ameixa.gif
24. Honey
65421217_1-Imagens-de-Mel-caseiro.jpg
25. Potato
external image 11949861111671588429potato_nicu_buculei_.svg.thumb.png
external image 11949861111671588429potato_nicu_buculei_.svg.thumb.png
26. Bacon
bacon.gif
lllll27. llllllllllllllllSardine
sardinha7a.jpg
28. Juice
suco_laranja1.jpg


29. Musicmusica-071006-2.jpg
30. Baggage
baggage.gif
31. Air
Ar.jpg
32. Milk
milk.gif
33. Flour
Farinha_Enriquecida.png

34. Sugar
saco-do-a-ccedil-uacutecar-thumb1453100.jpg




19) MODAL VERBS:



We use modal verbs followed by an infinitive without to.

CAN, COULD

  • Ability (to be capable of doing something/to be able to do something)

Example: She can cook delicious meals.
lllllllllllllllHe could speak Japanese when he was ten, but he can’t now.

  • Permission (to be allowed to do something)

Example: ‘You can use my computer if you have to.’
lllllllllllllllCan I use your phone?’ ‘Of course, you can'.

MAY, MIGHT

  • Permission

Example:May I come in?’ ‘Yes, please do.’
lllllllllllllllMay I use your pen?’ ‘Sorry, but I need it myself.’

  • Probability

May more probable
Might less probable

Example: It may rain tomorrow – that’s the weather forecast.
lllllllllllllllShe might not come with us, but I think she will.

Refusing permission -To refuse permission we use the negative forms:

  • Cannot or can't
Example:You can't use my computer till I´ve finished this letter.

  • May not
Example:You may not use my phone.

SHOULD

  • Moral obligation (when we think something is the right thing to do)

Example: You should respect your parents.

  • Necessity

Example: You should study for the tests. You shouldn’t waste time.

  • Advice

Example: We should help people in need. You shouldn’t be selfish.

MUST

  • Obligation

Example:They must obey the school rules.

  • Necessity

Example: I must finish my homework.


  • Logical deduction

Example: She must earn a lot of money.

MUSTN'T

We use the negative form to tell people not to do something or that something is wrong.

Example: We mustn’t drive at more than one hundred and twenty kilometers per hour/an hour.


20) RELATIVE PRONOUNS:


WHO/WHICH/THAT






The relative pronouns who, which and that go after the noun and at the beginning of the relative clause.

  • Who - refers to people, but we can often use that instead of who.





Example: Norma is the woman who/that has a vegetarian restaurant.


  • Which - refers to things, but in informal or spoken English that is more usual than which.

Example: The fact that he is a vegetarian doesn't affect me.
llllllllllllllI like vegetables and salads, which are good for the health.


  • Which can be a little formal.

Example: There are several vegetarian restaurants which don't do Sunday lunches.

  • Who, which and that can be the subject or the object of the relatuve clause. The object relative pronoun is sometimes omitted.

Example: That's the man I told you about. / It's the food I like.


21) THE IMPERATIVE:


FORM:


- The second person imperative in affirmative sentences has the same form as the infinitive.
Example: Do! / Go! / Sit down!

- In negative sentences we use don't infinitive.
Example: Don't sing! / Don't cry!

- First and third person imperative are different.
Example:Let's go to the cinema! (making a suggestion)
llllllllllllllLet them come! (giving permission/expressing a wish)
lllllllllllll Let's not go! (negative suggestion or request)


USE:


As you see, we don't use the imperative only to give orders. We can use it to express different functions:
  • Offering: Take a seat.
  • Warning: Be careful.
  • Instructing: Put a coin into the machine.
  • Prohibiting: Don't smoke.
  • Directing: Turn left here.
  • Inviting: Have a coffe with me.

We can make it more polite by putting do first and adding please.

Ordinary imperative: Have an ice cream.
Polite imperative: Do have another slice of cake.
Negative imperative: Please don't do it!

If we want to address someone in particular, we add - you.

Example: You come home early. Don't you dare!


22) PRESENT PERFECT TENSE:



Affirmative:

I have played
You have lived
He has tried
She has arrived
It has studied
We have gone
You have practised
They have got

Negative:

I haven't watched
You haven't painted
He hasn't received
She hasn't arrived
It hasn't seen
We haven't gone
You haven't invited
They haven't brought

Interrogative:


Have I worked?
Have you painted?
Has he arrived?
Has she got?
Has it seen?
Have we eaten?
Have you invited?
Have they appeared?

USE:

The present perfect is similar to a past tense, since it is used to refer to:
  • an indefinite past Example:They have left Liverpool.
  • a recently completed action Example:He has just finished the test.
  • an action not yet completed Example:They haven't decided yet.
  • an action begun in the past and continuing in the present Example:She has lived here for five years.

ALREADY, JUST, NEVER, EVER AND YET

We can use the present perfect with already, just, never, ever and yet.

Example: I have never done my homework.
lllllllllllllllI have just come back from my holiday.
lllllllllllllllTom has already finished his work.
lllllllllllllllShe hasn't started the course yet.
lllllllllllllllHave you ever studied for the tests?


FOR AND SINCE

We use the present perfect with for and since.

Example: He has been ill for a week.
lllllllllllllllArthur has lived here since 1998.


  • We use for to say how long the period is (for a week, for a month, for five days,...).
  • We use since to say when the period began (since last summer, since Tuesday, since he left school,...)



23) FASHION:


Jobs:


cabeleireira.gif

  • Fashion designer - estilista
  • Model - modelo
  • Hairdresser - cabeleireiro
  • Make-up - maquilhagem
  • Manicurist - manicura
  • Beauticion - esteticista
  • Masseuse - massagista

Shops:


  • Clothes shop - loja de roupaMB900250241.JPG
  • Department store - loja por secçõesMH900237140.JPG
  • Boutique - loja chique
  • Shoe shop - sapataria
  • Accessories shop - loja de acessórios
  • Jewelry - joalharia
  • Perfume shop / store - perfumaria

Fashions designers:


  • Ralph Lauren – preppy
  • Versace – smart / showy
  • Armani – classic / elegant
  • Dolce & Gabbana – sleek Stella
  • Stella McCartney – minimalist
  • John Galliano – extra

Clothes:


  • Shirt – camisa masculina, camiseta manga longa; MB900113454.JPG
  • T-Shirt – t-shirt;
  • Blouse – blusa;
  • Jacket – casaco curto;
  • Sweater – camisola;
  • Tie – gravata;
  • Suit – fato;
  • Skirt – saia
  • Dress – vestido;
  • Trousers – calças; MB900013431.JPG
  • Jeans – calças de ganga;
  • Shorts – calções;
  • Swinsuits ou bathing suits – trajes de banho como, biquini e outros;
  • Bathrobe – roupão;
  • Pyjama – pijama;
  • Nightgown –camisola;
  • Socks – meias;
  • Underwear – roupas de baixo;
  • Coat – casaco; MB900361510.JPG
  • Raincoat – gabardina;
  • Shoes – sapatos; external image moz-screenshot-4.png
  • Sandals – sandálias masculinas e femininas;
  • Boots – botas;
  • Hat - chapéu.



24) IRREGULAR VERBS:



Infinitive
Past
Past Participle
Tradução
Be
Was/were
Been
Ser, estar
Become
Became
Become
Tornar-se, vir a ser
Begin
Began
Begun
Começar
Break
Broke
Broken
Quebrar, partir
Bring
Brought
Brought
Trazer, causar
Build
Built
Built
Construir, levantar
Buy
Bought
Bought
Comprar, adquirir
Can
Could
---
Poder, ser capaz de
Catch
Caught
Caught
Apanhar, agarrar
Choose
Chose
Chosen
Escolher
Come
Came
Come
Vir
Cost
Cost
Cost
Custar
Cut
Cut
Cut
Cortar
Do
Did
Done
Fazer
Dream
Dreamt
Dreamt
Sonhar
Drink
Drank
Drunk
Beber
Drive
Drove
Driven
Conduzir
Eat
Ate
Eaten
Comer
Fall
Fell
Fallen
Cair
Feel
Felt
Felt
Sentir
Find
Found
Found
Encontrar, achar
Fly
Flew
Flown
Voar
Forget
Forgot
Forgotten
Esquecer
Get
Got
Got
Conseguir, adquirir
Give
Gave
Given
Dar
Go
Went
Gone
Ir
Have
Had
Had
Ter, possuir
Hear
Heard
Heard
Ouvir
Keep
Kept
Kept
Manter, guardar
Know
Knew
Known
Saber, conhecer
Learn
Learnt
Learnt
Aprender

Leave
Left
Left
Deixar, partir
Lose
Lost
Lost
Perder
Make
Made
Made
Fazer
Mean
Meant
Meant
Significar, querer dizer
Meet
Met
Met
Encontar (pessoas)
Pay
Paid
Paid
Pagar
Put
Put
Put
Pôr, colocar
Read
Read
Read*
Ler
Ride
Rode
Ridden
Andar a cavalo/de bicicleta
Ring
Rang
Rung
Tocar a campaínha
Run
Ran
Run
Correr
Say
Said
Said*
Dizer
See
Saw
Seen
Ver
Sell
Sold
Sold
Vender
Send
Sent
Sent
Enviar, mandar
Sleep
Slept
Slept
Dormir
Speak
Spoke
Spoken
Falar
Spend
Spent
Spent
Passar, gastar
Stand
Stood
Stood
Levantar, estar de pé
Swim
Swam
Swum
Nadar
Take
Took
Taken
Tomar, pegar, levar
Teach
Taught
Taught
Ensinar, leccionar
Tell
Told
Told
Dizer, contar
Think
Thought
Thought
Pensar
Throw
Threw
Thrown
Lançar, atirar
Understand
Understood
Understood
Compreender
Wake
Woke
Woken
Acordar, despertar
Wear
Wore
Worn
Usar, vestir
Win
Won
Won
Ganhar, vencer
Write
Wrote
Written
Escrever

25) REPORTED SPEECH:


  • We use reported speech to report what another person said.
In reported speech we often change the actual words.

Example: ’’I’m happy’’, says Tim. – Tim told me (that) he was happy.

  • In reporting we use a variety of verbs, the most common being say ands tell.
When we report statements, we often use that, but we can also omit it.


CHANGES:

Tenses
Direct Speech Reported speech

Present Simple ------------------> Past Simple
Present Continuous----------------> Past Continuous
Future: Will ---------------------> Conditional: Would

Time and Place Expressions
Direct Speech Reported speech

Now at the moment ---------> Then
Today ------------------------>That day
Yesterday-------------------->The day before
Tomorrow---------------------> The next day/the following day
Next year --------------------->The following year
A year ago a year before --> The previous year
Here----------------------------> There
This ----------------------------> That
These --------------------------> Those


Personal Pronouns- Object
Direct Speech Reported Speech

Me-----------------> Him/her
Us-----------------> Them
You ----------------> Me/us
Him/her/it ----------> Him/her/it
Them --------------> Them


Possessive Determiners
Direct Speech Reported Speech

My-----------------> His/her
Our ----------------> Their
Your ---------------> My/our
His/her/its ----------> His/her/its
Their ---------------> Their


Personal Pronouns - Subject
Direct Speech Reported Speech

I ----------------> He/she
We --------------> They
You --------------> I /we
He/she/it ---------> He/she/it
They -------------> They





26) BIOGRAPHY: (English work)

Ricardo Preto:

Ricardo Preto studied architecture at the Lusiada University in Lisbon. After that, he was an apprentice of mestre Maria Emilia Sobreira and he did a Handbag workshop at St. Martins School of Arts in London.

 As a creator, Ricardo Preto designed a collection for Amarras, created bags for the sSanish brand Perteguaz, made hats and accessories for designers like Dino Alves and Osvaldo Martins.

 He presented two collections at Manobras de Maio and became part of ModaLisboa LAB platform in March 2006, having integrated, in March 2007, the group of seniors designers.

 He has costumized for many brands, like Levi´s, Energie, Nike, Miss Sixty and Pepe Jeans. Besides making his collections Ricardo has also produced fashion editorials for magazines like Dif, Máxima, Zoot, Umbigo, amongst others.

 He created the campaigns of 2007 and 2008 for Vista Alegre, and participated as a stylist in the campaigns of Água das Pedras, Moviflor, and B.P.I. bank.

 Ricardo Preto developed the look for Oliveira da Serra, Cannon, Toshiba and Fita Azul.

 He developed creative partnerships with the brands Canon, Bic, Oliveira da Serra, Italian Motor Village - Spazio Dual and Toshibal.

 The collection that he presented in ModaLisboa Outuno/Winter 2008/2009 can be bought in Loja das Meias.



external image whopic.jpg




external image 1287417088.jpg
aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaModa Lisboa, 35th Edition- summer 2011

Ana Catarina- Satisfaz Plenamente
Filipe- Fraco
Helena Anselomo- Satisfaz Menos
Jessica Ribeiro- Satisfaz Bem
Vasco Frija- Satisfaz Menos


Continuing of the summaries of the subjects learnt:



27) WH-QUESTIONS:


  • We use Who, Whom, Whose to ask questions about people.
  • We use Which to ask questions about things.
  • We use What to ask about actions and events.
  • We use When to ask about time.
  • We use Why to ask about reason.
  • We use Where to ask about place.


REPORTING QUESTIONS


Example:Tom: Do you go to the theater every week?
llllllllllllllTom asked Paul if he went to the theater every week.


  • We use reported questions to talk about questions that someone else has asked.
  • In indirect or reported questions, the subject of the question comes before the verb, just as it does in affirmative sentences.
  • We use if or whether in indirect and reported yes/no questions.


28) VERBS FOLLOWED BY PREPOSITIONS:

  • Some verbs do not take an object directly but are normally followed by a preposition.

Example: She cares about the world's problems.

  • Some verbs take an object followed by a particular preposition.

Example: Ask the grocer for the bill.

  • Other verbs can take either an object or a prepositional object.

Example: Don't play with knives.

Here is a list of common prepositional verbs:

-> agree on / with
-> belong to
-> care about
-> consist of
-> deal with
-> depend on
-> insist on
-> laugh at
-> listen to
-> look at
-> pay of
-> smile at
-> speak about
-> suffer from
-> talk about / to
-> think of / about


29) THE MEDIA:



TV:

Advantages:television.gif

- TV is a source of information, entertainment and knowledge.
- We have fun and sometimes it helps us forget our own problems.
- For some people, especially old and lonely ones. TV is the only company they have.
- There are campaigns meant to help people with some kind of problems - health, money, etc.
- People can learn different subjects on TV - to speak languages, to bake cakes, etc
- There are some scientific programmes through which we learn about nature, economics, etc.
- People get informed about what is going on around the world, sometimes at the same time things are happening - the royal
- Wedding, Bin Laden's death, etc.
- We are also informed about the weather forecast.


Disadvantages:MH900024447.JPG

- Tv can be harmful for our eyesight.
- Some people get addicted to TV, spend too much time in front of it and became real "couch potatoes"
- Also they forget to do other things - going for walks meeting friends, etc.
- It can be a bad influence especially for children and youngsters, who tend to imatate bad behaviours - violence, crimes, drugs, alcohol,etc.
- Some people say it kills imagination.
- Some people can get shoked with what they see.


30) THE MASS MEDIA (vocabulary):



Means of Communication -meios de de comunicaçã
MH900359491.JPG

  • radio - rádio
  • mobile phone - telemóvel
  • press - imprensa
aaaaaaaaaa - newspapers - jornais
aaaaaaaaaa - magazine - revistas
  • television - televisão
  • internet - internet

Type of programmes can you watch on tv - tipos de programas que podes ver na televisão
MH900217144.JPG
  • animed cartoons - desenhos animados;
  • documentary - documentário;
  • news - notícias;
  • weather forecast - meteorologia;
  • debate - debate;
  • interview - entrevista;
  • show - espectáculo;
  • quiz show - concurso;
  • series - séries;
  • movie - filme;
  • talk show - programa de entretenhimento;
  • soap opera - telenovela;
  • sports - desporto;
  • commercials - publicidade
  • comedy - comédia
  • concerts - concertos
  • plays - peças de teatro.


MH900149773.JPG
Tv jobs - profissionais de televisão

  • cameraman - operador de cMH900318622.JPGâmara
  • consultant - consultor
  • journalist - jornalista
  • presenter - apresentador
  • producer - produtor
  • programme director - director de programa
  • sound technician - técnico de som
  • video technician - técnico de vídeo

Television - televisão

  • box - televisãoMH900432517.JPG
  • cable tv - televisão por cabo
  • digital tv - telivisão digital
  • satellite tv - televisão por satélite
  • telly - televisão
  • channel - canal
  • commercials - publicidade
  • programme - programa
  • remote control - controlo remoto

Radio - rádio

  • band - banda
  • radio set - aparelho de rádio
  • station - estaçãoMH900290110.JPG
  • turn on - ligar
  • turn off - desligar

Radio programmes - programas de rádio

  • comedy - comédia
  • current affairs - actualidades
  • drama - drama
  • interviews - entrevistas
  • music - música
  • news - notícias
  • plays - peças de teatro
  • sports - desporto

Kinds of newspapers - tipos de jornaisMH900348967.JPG

  • daily paper - jornal diário
  • local paper - jornal local
  • national paper - jornal nacional
  • Sunday paper - jornal de Domingo
  • weekly paper - semanário


Newspaper sections - secções de um jornal

  • advertisements - anúncios, publicidade
  • advice columns - consultório (sentimental)
  • arts - arte
  • business - negóciosMH900238683.JPG
  • classified ads - anúncios classificados
  • comics - humor
  • home news - notícias nacionais
  • horoscopes - horóscopos
  • fashion - moda
  • opinion page - página de opinião
  • travel - viagens
  • weather forecast - previsões atmosféricas / tempo / boletim meteorológico
  • world news - notícias internacionais


30.1) QUALITY PAPER AND POPULAR PAPER:




Differences between quality paper and popular paper:

Quality papers
Popular papers
Size of sheet:
Large size - broadsheet
Small size – tabloid
Pictures:
Few pictures, usually small and in black and white
Big colourful pictures mostly of people
Headlines:
Small headlines, which usually summarize the articles
Big eye – catching headlines
Types of news:
Serious issues, politics, economics, crisis, detailed articles
Short and dramatic articles, stories which intend to shackthe readers; scandals, personal hives


31) MANY, MUCH AND A LOT OF:


  • We use many, much and a lot of to express a large quantity.

Many - Countable and plural nouns ( Negative and Interrogative )


Example: She has been living here for many years.

Much - Uncountable nouns ( Negative and Interrogative )


Example: He doesn't know much about his disease.

A lot of - Countable and uncountable nouns

Example: They have got a lot of dogs.


HOW ... QUESTIONS

  • How ..+ to be + subject

Example: How tall is John ?

  • How .. + auxiliary verb + subject + infinitive

Example: How long did she wait for the underground ?



32) PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS:


FORM: Have / Has + been + verb + -ing form

Affirmative:
I have been working
You have been working
He has been working
She has been working
It has been working
We have been working
You have been working
They have been working


Negative:

I haven't been reading
You haven't been reading
He hasn't been reading
She hasn't been reading
It hasn't been reading
We haven't been reading
You haven't been reading
They haven't been reading


Interrogative:


Have I been waiting?
Have you been waiting?
Has he been waiting?
Has she been waiting?
Has it been waiting?
Have we been waiting?
Have you been waiting?
Have they been waiting?



USE:

  • The present perfect continuous is used to talk about an action that started in the past, that has continued over a period of time and is still continuing now.

Example: She has been living here for four months.

  • We often use the present perfect continuous with for and since to say how long an action has been happening.

  • This tense is more often used with verbs which have the meaning of prolonged action such as: work, live, study, read, stay, wait, sleep.



TIME MARKERS:

  • for
  • since
  • how long...?
  • all morning
  • all afternoon

33) GERUND:



...

34) INFINITIVE:


....

35) THE PASSIVE:


....

36) CONDITIONALS:


1st conditional -

Example:

2nd conditional -

Example:

Catarina- Satisfaz Plenamente
Vasco- Fraco
Filipe- Fraco